I earned my medical degree from The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, then completed a general surgery residency at Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center at El Paso. From there, I completed my psychiatry residency at the University of New Mexico. There, I was much influenced by Jungian practitioners, gained comprehensive knowledge of what psychiatry can and cannot do, and realized that any distress can be a result of problematic reactions to stressors, both physical and psychological. I practiced in Albuquerque for a number of years before moving to Portland to continue with Providence. My psychiatric practice experience has included outpatient pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, inpatient psychiatry, emergency psychiatry, and geriatric psychiatry. I am board certified by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology. I am also a fellow with the American Psychiatric Association and a member of the Oregon Psychiatric Association.